Minors and Youth

Minimum Age for Employment

In accordance with provisions of Employment and Labour Relations Act, 2004, minimum age for employment is 14 years. A child of fourteen years of age may only be employed to do light work, which is not likely to be harmful to the child's health and development. Employment of a child must not affect  the child's attendance at school, participation in vocational orientation or training programmes approved by the competent authority or the child's capacity to benefit from the instruction received.

The Constitution of Tanzania provides the right to access education and every citizen is free to pursue education and technique of his/her choice and according to their abilities.

A child cannot be permitted to work during school hours. A child who is still attending school cannot be required or permitted to work for more than three hours per day. A child of 14 years and above who is on leave or has completed his compulsory education or is not in school for any other justifiable reasons may be employed to work in an establishment for not more than 6 hours per day. A child cannot be made to work for more than three consecutive hours without at least one hour of rest.

Source: §5 of the Employment and Labour Relations Act 2004; §11 of the Constitution of Tanzania; §3-10 of the Employment and Labour Relations (General) Regulations, 2017

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

The minimum age for hazardous work is 18 years. A person may not employ or engage a child in any kind of exploitative labour. This includes employment that is inappropriate for a person of that age; that places at risk the child's well-being, education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral or social development or where the child receives inadequate remuneration.

Any person who contravenes any of the provisions of related to exploitive labour commits an offence and is, on conviction, liable to a fine of not less than one hundred thousand shillings or to imprisonment for a term of three months or to both.

It is unlawful to employ or engage a child in any type of hazardous work. Work is considered to be hazardous when it poses a danger to the health, safety or morals of a person.

Hazardous work includes going to sea; mining and quarrying; porterage of heavy loads; manufacturing industries where chemicals are produced or used; work in places where machines are used; and work in place such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment. Night work (between 8pm and 6am) and overtime work is also prohibited for children. 2017 Regulations have a long list of hazardous works prohibited for children under 18 years.

Source: § 5(3) of Employment and labour Relations Act 2004, § 77-86 of the Law of the Child Employment Act 2009; §3(2) and first schedule of the Employment and Labour Relations (General) Regulations, 2017

Regulations on Minors and Youth

  • Employment and Labour Relations Act, No. 6 of 2004 / Sheria ya Ajira na Mahusiano Kazini Sehemu ya 6 ya 2004
  • The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, 1977 (amended in 2005) / Katiba ya Jamuhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, 1977 (imefanyiwa marekebisho mwaka 1995)
  • Law of the Child Employment Act, 2009 / Sheria ya Haki za Mtoto, 2009