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COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT BETWEEN RENE INDUSTRIES LIMITED AND UGANDA CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM WORKERS’ UNION (UCPAWU) - 2014

MARCH 2014/2015

ARTICLE 1.0 BACKGROUND

The Company and the Union having met on voluntary and negotiable matters concerning wages, categories of service and other terms and conditions of Service for the Unionized employees of the Company as per the Recognition Agreement concluded between the Company and the Union as of 12th December 2007 NOW HEREBY MUTUALLY AGREE AS FOLLOWS:

ARTICLE 2.0 PREAMBLE

1. The scope of this agreement shall cover all unionized employees of the company as defined in the article 9.02 of the recognition agreement.

2. The job categories in the attached schedule indicate entry points [starting point] for each category of workers and the length of services. However, no employee already in services shall receive remuneration subject to the signing of this agreement less favourable than the remuneration of his/her service at that date.

3. New employees shall be engaged for a maximum probationary period of six months; The Union shall be advised of the Company’s arrangement and as such shall have the right to object where it considers probationary period has been unfairly extended. For the purposes of this Agreement, probationary employee is on employed directly by the Company for the purpose of occupying a regular position after appropriate period. After probationary period, the employee shall become permanent. Service seniority shall apply from the date of the employee’ s initial engagement on probation. During the training and the probationary period, employees will receive 75% (Seventy five percent) of their basic

salary.

4. This agreement shall be effective from 1st day of March, 2014 for a period of 2 (two) years and shall continue in force until otherwise amended by the parties. Thirty [30] years-days to the expiry of this agreement, the Union shall forward a written notice setting forth the nature of any proposed amendments and other related matters hereafter to the Company. However, should economic conditions ruling in Uganda take a spectacular and sudden change, a notice may be given by either party to effect changes in the terms of this agreement before the expiry of two years.

ARTICLE 3.0 WAGES

The Company & the Union agree that when fixing wages the policy to be followed shall be:

a) To obtain a continuous improvement in worker’ earnings so long as the Company’s profits continue to improve

b) To ensure the high standards for productivity 

c) To safeguard the economic and social objectives of the Community

d) To ensure the principle of equal pay irrespective of one’s race, sex, creed and colour.

ARTICLE 4.0 EMPLOYMENT

The Company shall employ workers in accordance with the law in force. All types of employment offered by the company shall be in line with the company policy, employment Act and employee regulations.

4.1 CONTRACT EMPLOYMENT

All employees on /contractual employment shall enter into an employment contract with the Management and shall be duty signed by both parties.

a. Employment Contract The contract shall conform to the rights and duties in employment as stipulated by the law and it shall be drafted in conjunction with the Union. It shall further spell out the Designation, Conditions of Assignments and remuneration package.

b. The contract duration shall be between six (6) months to two years Renewal.

Note; The said contract shall be binding and shall supersede any previous contacts and terms and conditions of services between the employer and the employee and should be read together with the CBA and the Company rules/policies in place.

ARTICLE 5.0 TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE

5.1 Hours of Work

a. The normal standard working hours per week, shall be a maximum of 48 (Forty eight)

hours; excluding meals time for all workers of the Company._

b. In case there is need for the Company to regulate daily or weekly hours of work in order to suit peculiar work requirements such schedules shall first be discussed between the Company and the Union. Such hours so regulated shall, however, remain within the limitation of clause 1.01 (a) above and 1.02 below. In any case, no employee(s) shall be asked by the Company to report on a broken shift of more than once a day.

c. Each week shall include a period of one day off of not less than 24 hours (twenty four) hours of continuous rest.

5.2 Overtime

a. An employee’s overtime should be authorized in writing by the Head of department in

conjunction with Human Resource/Plant Manager, b. Overtime worked shall be paid on 1.5(one and a half) times hourly rate of gross pay. c. Overtime worked on rest days shall be paid at 2 (two) times hourly rate of gross hourly rate or time off in lieu. All overtime earned in a given month, is taxable.

Note: Overtime rates shall apply only where at least 1 hour have been worked in excess of one’s normal daily working hours.

ARTICLE 6.0 PAYMENT OF SALARIES/WAGES

i. Salaries/wages will be paid either by cheque, bank or cash.

ii. All employees will be required to open a salary account with a bank nominated by the company in Uganda where salaries/wages may be paid. The employment must notify the Management of the company stating the account number, branch and address of the bank to which payment is to be made.

iii. Bank charges arising from the salaries/wages payment to the workers shall be met by the renewal, cash withdrawal charges, annual bank charges for maintaining accounts and all other charges arising from loss of ATM cards.

iv. All salaries and wages shall be paid on 2nd or before second of every month.

ARTICLE 7.0 PUBLIC HOLIDAY

All Uganda gazetted public and other recognized public holidays as may appear in the Ugandan gazette, announced in the media and recognized nationally and internationally from time to time, shall be considered public holiday(s) and shall receive overtime pay in accordance with clause 5.2c (five two c) above of all hours worked.

a. An employee shall have the option together with the employer to either grant a day off or payment in lieu of the public holiday worked as provided in the employment act and employees regulations.

b. No employee shall refuse the request of the management to work on a public holiday or during holidays except those with genuine reasons.

ARTICLE 8.0 LEAVE

8.1 Annual Leave

Every employee shall be entitled to annual leave as follows:

a) An employee having offered unbroken service from 1 to 7 years, shall be entitled to 21 working days of leave annually.

An employee having offered unbroken service from 7 and above years shall be entitled to 22 working days of leave annually.

c) All permanent employees shall have transport allowance of UGX 25,000/= effective the month of March 2014.

d) Wages and any allowance for leave will be paid prior to the date the leave commences.

e) An employee on leave who requires an extension should apply at least 48 hours before the expiry of the leave to his/her head of department and such extension will only be valid when approved but the extension is without pay.

f) Leave shall be sanctioned based on exigencies of work/business at the time of application. at departmental level considering the seriousness of the case, mutual agreement between parties i.e. employee and management (employer).all rules governing leave shall be observed as per the employment act and employee regulations. All leave shall expire by 31st December of every calendar year.

g) In the exigencies of the Company service, an employee may be recalled to duty before the expiry of his/her leave except in case of maternity/ paternity leave, in which case the balance of the leave days will be carried forward or paid for in cash, at the rate of two times his/her hourly salary rate.

8.2 SICK LEAVE

Sick leave shall be granted to employees of the company in line with the employment act and employee regulations and company medical policy.

8.3 INJURY- ON- DUTY LEAVE (SICKNESS DUE TO INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT S)

In case of absence from duty as a result of an accident at the work place, injuries on duty leave shall be given and full salary/wages will be paid until person returns to work. The Workman s Compensation act shall Be applied.

8.4 MATERNITY/PATERNITY LEAVE

a) Female employees shall be granted maternity leave on full pay as per the legislation in force. Currently, this amounts to Ten (10) consecutive weeks excluding public holidays. This leave can be extended by a period not exceeding that as may be recommended by a medical doctor/practitioner.

However, any further request by the employee to extend the maternity leave may be granted on such terms as Management may decide.

b) Paternity leave per birth in a year shall be granted to an employee (husband) when his declared wife has had baby to enable him provide the required assistance at home. This leave shall be taken at the time of birth as per the legislation i.e. four (4) days.

8.5 COMPASSIONATE LEAVE

In special circumstances and upon application in writing, an employee may be granted compassionate leave for a period agreed upon between the employee and the supervisor according to the circumstances in each case.

In case of loss of a close relative, the employee shall be granted compassionate paid leave of 4 (four) days.

Close relative in this case shall include the employees recognized spouse, (husband or wife), biological child, father and mother.

In other circumstances, the employee may be allowed to proceed on an unpaid compassionate leave.

8.6 LEAVE FOR UNION BUSSINES

Both the Company and the Union realize the need for a strong Union with well trained Union officials/members responsible to execute the affairs of the Union in the interest of both parties hereto and to the nation as a whole and therefore agree that the following leaves will be granted by the Company to the Union officials or any of the employees (Union members) of the Company and shall be without loss of pay;

a. Leave to attend Union business shall be applicable to the Union executive members and such leaves shall be on full pay provided that the employer has granted prior permission. Such permission shall not be unreasonable withheld.

b. The employee seeking such leave will give the employer at least forty eight (48) hours notice but in case of an emergency meeting, a notice of twenty 24 hours shall be given.

c. Confirmation of all leave granted by the Company to any of its employee (s) under this clause shall be given to the employee(s). Upon return to work, the employee will provide a letter from the Union confirming that she/he attended to the Union business.

d. Any employee(s) granted leave under this clause shall not accept employment elsewhere during such period.

e. Such leave shall be a maximum of 5 days in each calendar year except for those on executive committee/council.

8.7 LEAVE WITHOUT PAY

Leave without pay may be granted by mutual agreement between the employee and Management depending on the nature of the case.

8.8 STUDY LEAVE

The Managing Director upon recommendation of the Head of Department may authorize the granting of leave with or without pay to an employee for purposes of further training or Education.

The Company’s mission will be used to determine the relevance of the courses however; the granting of any such leave will be strictly at the Company’s discretion.

ARTICLE 9.0 EMPLOYEE BENEFITS/EXPENSES

9.1 Death benefits

If the case of death of an employee, the Company shall pay benefits as follows:-

a) If the employee dies, Ugx. 500,000/= (Five hundred thousand shillings only) shall be given to the bereaved family.

b) If it is the employee’s registered spouse Ugx 200,000/= (Two hundred thousand shillings only shall be given to the employee for burial expenses.

c) If it is the employee’s 4 (four) of the registered children less than 18 years of age, Ugx

100,000/= (One hundred thousand shillings only shall be given to the employee for burial expenses.

d) An employee who dies while in employment with a minimum of five years of continuous service to the Company, shall be paid 4% of his annual gross pay times the number of years worked on top of the entitlements under this clause, save for those who shall have

attained ten and more years of service whose benefits fall under the retirement provisions.

e) The Management shall permit at least two employees to represent Management and the Union at the burial of the employee for a maximum of two days and any facilitation shall be at the discretion of management.

9.2 RETIREMENT BENEFITS/REDUNDANCY/LAYOFF AND RESIGNATION

9.2.1 Retirement

Employee retirement policy of the company under this clause shall apply in the following cases

>Old age of 55 (Fifty five) years and given benefits as follows;

a. 8 % of employees annual gross pay times the years worked.

> Medical unfitness as per the employment act and employee regulations. The benefits shall be as follows;

b. 5% of the annual gross pay times the years worked.

> Voluntary at 50 (Fifty) years of age and the benefits shall be as follows;

c. 7% of the annual gross pay times the years worked.

9.2.2 Redundancy and Layoff

The company shall apply and observe all procedures governing the above issue in lieu of notice and pay as provided in the employment act and employee regulations;

a. When an employee is discharged under this clause all entitlements and benefits due to him/her e.g. annual leave, public holidays, overtime and transport allowances plus one months’ salary pay shall be paid to the employee on the date on which the lay-off notice

expires, except where the employee has been discharged outside this clause, the benefits shall be at the discretion of management.

b. During the period of notice the employee shall as far as it is practicable be entitled to reasonable amount of time off without loss of pay in order to look for another employment.

c. Shop steward will be consulted during the layoff process.

d. An offer of re-engagement to an employee laid off will be made by Management in the event of a suitable vacancy arising with 6 (six) months of the date of the employees lay off. The onus of leaving a forwarding address lies with employee and if a reply from the employee is not received within 15 (fifteen) days from the date of the Management s notification, the vacancy may be from other sources.

Note; Early retirement or delay retirement will be at the discretion of Management and the Union upon employee request.

9.2.3 Resignation

Employee resignation shall be handled as per the employment act, company policy and employee regulations shall be applied i.e. either party shall give the other notice or pay in lieu.

ARTICLE 10.0 LONG SERVICE AWARD

For the purpose of appreciating, motivating, consolidating loyalty and recognizing the services of a worker to the Company:-

a) An employee who has continuously served the Company for 7 (seven) years, shall be given an award of 150,000/= (One hundred fifty thousand shillings only) and/or its equivalence as a token of appreciation for the years he/she has worked.

b) An employee who has continuously served the Company for 12 (twelve) years, shall be given an award of 200,000/= (Two hundred thousand shillings only) and/or its equivalence as a token of appreciation for 12 (twelve) years of service.

ARTICLE 11.0 JOB VACANCY AND PROMOTIONS

The Management shall give top priority to the existing qualified or qualifiable employees for any post that may fall vacant. No employee shall be subject to probationary period on promotion.

During the recruitment process of new unionisable staff, the union representative shall be co opted on the interviewing panel to select employees of the Company for positions other than those of Management staff however, this will be applicable effective the next CBA.

ARTICLE 12.0 STAFF MEALS

The Company shall provide descent meals to all its employees whilst on duty as specified below. Morning shift - Morning tea with a bite and Lunch Evening/Night shift - Evening tea with a bite and dinner in cash form The Company shall provide free and descent meals to all its employees whilst on duty.

ARTICLE 13.0 TRAVELING ON DUTY

Management shall meet all necessary expenses of an employee while travelling on duty.

ARTICLE 14.0 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

The company shall provide suitable uniforms, protective gears and clothing. There shall be a Safety and Health Committee, which shall regularly review all matters relating to health and safety. Two members shall represent the Union on the said committee.

The company shall continue to maintain all existing devices and practices for the purpose of promoting healthful and safe working devices and practices for the purpose of promoting healthful and safe working conditions and shall with occupational Safety and Health Act 2006.

ARTICLE 15.0 UNION OFFICE

A room within the company premises shall be used by the union representatives to conduct particular affairs upon request and getting permission from management.

ARTICLE 16.0 SEXUAL HARRASMENT

If an employee is sexually harassed while in the course of his/her employment, either by the employer or his representative or a follow employee, the one at the fault shall be dealt with in accordance with the law.

ARTICLE 17.0 HIV & AIDS POLICY

The Company shall establish HIV & AIDS policy at the workplace and a committee shall be established for purposes of implantation and Management of this policy.

ARTICLE 18.0 COMMUTER

The Company shall provide transport back home to all staff whose work ends after 10:00pm

ARTICLE 19.0 MEDICAL TREATMENT

The company shall provide a clinic with a qualified Medical practitioner to provide first aid, medical treatment, to all employees during working hours from Monday to Saturday as per the annexed medical policy agreed upon between the Union and the Management. The clinic shall be in operation from 8:00am to 5:00pm every day.

ARTICLE 20.0 ACTING ALLOWANCE

It is agreed that where an employee is required to act in a position of higher grade over and above that which is substantive to him/her for a period in excess of 30 (thirty) days, the employee shall be paid the lowest slab of the grade in which he/she is acting as long as its higher than his/her current salary. This requirement shall be made in writing by the head of department and approved by the Human Resource Manager.

Should an employee act for three months other than a normal promotion then he shall be confirmed in that position.

All rules governing acting positions and allowances offered shall be handled under this clause in line with the employment act.

ARTICLE 21.0 CONTRIBUTIONS AND DEDUCTIONS

Employees shall be required to make contributions and deductions shall be made on gross salaries to ensure that all taxes and contributions required by statutory organizations are met when required;

a. The Company and all employees shall be required to contribute to the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) as by law establish.

b. Statutory taxes such as Local Service Tax, Pay As You Earn (PAYE) shall also be met by eligible employees.

c. Union deductions from unionized members shall be made every end of the months at a percentage agreed upon members and the secretariat.

d. All deductions made on salaries/wages shall be included in the employee pay slips as stipulated by law.

ARTICLE 22.0 BETTER TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF WORK

It is mutually agreed and understood that no clause of this agreement shall prejudice or deprive an employee(s) of any benefit(s) offered by the Company which are established and are better than those provided in this agreement.

ARTICLE 23.0 CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE

When an employee leaves the Company’s services on his own accord, or his/her service terminated under the provisions of this agreement, he/she shall be issued with a certificate of service. He/she will also be issued with a recommendation on request. Certificate of service will include name and address of employee, name of employee, dates of commencement and termination of service and type of work performed.

ARTICLE 24.0 EXEMPTION OF LATE NIGHT DUTY

All Female employees with babies of below one (1) year old shall not be allowed to work for night shifts, provided that the Management of the Company is informed.

ARTICLE 25.0 NIGHT ALLOWANCE

An employee who works night shift shall be paid a night allowance of UGX 1,000/= (one thousand shillings only) per night worked for the twelve working hours.

ARTICLE 26.0 BONUS

The Company shall provide an annual bonus/incentive at its discretion depending on the achievements of the Company’s goals and objectives of each calendar year.

ARTICLE 27.0 EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE AND GRIEVANCE HANDLING

It is intention of the Management and the Union that disciplinary action shall have the goal of correcting or improving performance and conduct; where breaches of discipline do not warrant instant dismissals as laid down in the rules and regulations.

All disciplinary actions are to be recorded in the employee’s personal file, prepared by the Human Resource Department in conjunction with the relevant Department Heads. Such disciplinary action shall be dully signed by the employee and copied to the chief shop steward.

27.1 Procedures

To ensure that all disciplinary actions are carried out in a fair, just, consistent and professional manner. All disciplinary procedures shall be observed by all parties and respective authorities shall follow procedures legally recognized in executing day to day disciplinary actions,

All procedures contained in the human resources manual shall be observed in resolving disagreements between employee and employer representative or supervisor i.e.

27.1.1. Warnings

a. Information/Verbal Warning. A minor breach of rules will result in an informal warning by the supervisor. The supervisor and the member of staff should examine what

dismissals under the grievance procedure established in our Recognition Agreement In case where the act of the Company win be proven to constitute an act of wongful repudiation.

27.1.2. Instant dismissal

Should an employee commit any of the following offences he/she will be liable for instar dismissal by the Management of the Company.

i. Fraud (proven)

ii. Proven gross insubordination within ones normal scope of duties

iii. Assault to others

v. Bringing dangerous weapons into the Company

vi. Drug abuse

vii. Willful damage of Company property

viii. Prolonged absenteeism without cause

ix. Divulging confidential Company information

x. Illegal strike

xi. Proven Sexual Immorality on Company premises

For instant dismissal due to dishonesty, the employee entitlement shall be restricted to leave days earned, salary arrears, - and overtime and public holidays in lieu.

Note; The handling of severe offences like Theft (proven) shall be at the discretion of management. The union shall consider the culprit instantly dismissed from duty

a) Termination of services

b) Demotion

c) Reduction in wages

d) Suspension without pay

e) Stoppage of increment

f) Reprimand

27.2 The Disciplinary Committee

The disciplinary committee shall handle major or continuous cases of indiscipline The disciplinary committee shall comprise of five (5) members as follows:-

Management: 2 Permanent representatives

1 variable (departmental heads)

Union: 2 Permanent representatives

(Chairperson and Secretary’s offices)

1 variable (departmental shop steward)

27.2 Suspension Pending Investigations

Where it requires Management to make investigations in case of an offence with no clear evidence, an employee may be suspended. Such suspension shall be in writing and copied to chief Shop Steward.

Suspension under this clause shall not exceed 2(two) weeks. The salary of the employee on suspension shall be reduced by half the basic pay. After 2(two) weeks, if the investigations into the employee’s case is not yet completed, the suspension period will be extended in writing for another 2(two) weeks.

After 2 (two) weeks extension if the employee is not proven guilty of the offence, he/she shall be assumed to have no case to answer and therefore, he/she has to resume duties with full pay as form the day of suspension.

28.0 ABSCONDEMENT FROM DUTY

An employee shall be considered as having absconded from duty after absenting himself or herself from his/her workplace for 6 (six) consecutive days without permission from his/her employer or Supervisor or without a justifiable cause of reason.

The person in question forfeits his/her termination notice dues. The disciplinary committee will take into account extenuation circumstances.

FOR AND ON BEHALF OF:

RENE INDUSTRIES LIMITED - MANAGING DIRECTOR

UGANDA CHEMICAL, PETROLEUM & ALLIED WORKERS' UNION - SECRETARY GENERAL

DATE: 17/03/2014.

************

APPENDIX ‘A’

MEMORANDUM OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENT

BETWEEN

RENE INDUSTRIES LIMITED P 0 BOX 6034, KAMPALA

(Hereinafter called the “Company” on one part)

AND

UGANDA CHEMICAL AND PETROLEUM WORKERS’ UNION (UCPAWU)

P O BOX 16429 KAMPALA

(Hereinafter called the “Union” on other one part)

IN THE MATTER APPENDIX ‘A’

1. All salaries of employees shall be increased by 30,000/= (Thirty thousand) across the board effective the Month of March 2014 for the period of one year.

2. The parties hereto, agreed that the agreement referred to 1 above, shall be effective from the 1st day of March, 2014 for a period of one year which shall be reviewed in 2015 on condition that the market forces of demand and supply remain favourable and production levels are above those of 2012.

FOR AND ON BEHALF OF:

RENE INDUSTRIES LIMITED - MANAGING DIRECTOR

UGANDA CHEMICAL, PETROLEUM & ALLIED WORKERS' UNION - SECRETARY GENERAL

DATE: 17/03/2014.

Rene Industries Limited - 2014

Start date: → 2014-03-17
End date: → 2015-03-16
Ratified by: → Other
Ratified on: → 2014-03-17
Name industry: → Manufacturing
Name industry: → Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations
Public/private sector: → In the private sector
Concluded by:
Name company: → Rene Industries Limited
Names trade unions: → Uganda Chemical and Petroleum Workers’ Union (UCPAWU)

TRAINING

Training programmes: → Yes
Apprenticeships: → No
Employer contributes to training fund for employees: → No

SICKNESS AND DISABILITY

Provisions regarding return to work after long-term illness, e.g. cancer treatment: → No
Paid menstruation leave: → No
Pay in case of disability due to work accident: → Yes

WORK AND FAMILY ARRANGEMENTS

Maternity paid leave: → 10 weeks
Maternity paid leave restricted to 100 % of basic wage
Job security after maternity leave: → No
Prohibition of discrimination related to maternity: → No
Prohibition to oblige pregnant or breastfeeding workers to perform dangerous or unhealthy work: → 
Workplace risk assessment on the safety and health of pregnant or nursing women: → 
Availability of alternatives to dangerous or unhealthy work for pregnant or breastfeeding workers: → 
Time off for prenatal medical examinations: → 
Prohibition of screening for pregnancy before regularising non-standard workers: → 
Prohibition of screening for pregnancy before promotion: → 
Facilities for nursing mothers: → No
Employer-provided childcare facilities: → No
Employer-subsidized childcare facilities: → No
Monetary tuition/subsidy for children's education: → No
Paid leave per year in case of caring for relatives: → It depends on the duration of hospitalization days
Paternity paid leave: → Not specified days
Leave duration in days in case of death of a relative: → No provision days

GENDER EQUALITY ISSUES

Equal pay for work of equal value: → Yes
Special reference to gender for pay equality: → No
Discrimination at work clauses: → No
Equal opportunities for promotion for women: → No
Equal opportunities for training and retraining for women: → No
Gender equality trade union officer at the workplace: → No
Clauses on sexual harassment at work: → Yes
Clauses on violence at work: → No
Special leave for workers subjected to domestic or intimate partner violence: → No
Support for women workers with disabilities: → No
Gender equality monitoring: → No

EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS

Trial period duration: → 180 days
Part-time workers excluded from any provision: → No
Provisions about temporary workers: → No
Apprentices excluded from any provision: → No
Minijobs/student jobs excluded from any provision: → No

WORKING HOURS, SCHEDULES AND HOLIDAYS

Working hours per day: → 48.0
Paid annual leave: → 21.0 days
Paid annual leave: → 3.0 weeks
Paid bank holidays: → Christmas Day (December 25), Easter Sunday (first Sunday after the full moon following 21st March), John Chilembwe Day (15th January)
Rest period of at least one day per week agreed: → Yes
Paid leave for trade union activities: → 5.0 days
Provisions on flexible work arrangements: → No

WAGES

Wages determined by means of pay scales: → No
Adjustment for rising costs of living: → 

Once only extra payment

Once only extra payment due to company performance: → No

Premium for evening or night work

Premium for evening or night work: → UGX  per month
Premium for night work only: → Yes

Extra payment for annual leave

Extra payment for annual leave: → UGX 25000.0

Premium for overtime work

Premium for Sunday work

Premium for Sunday work: → 200 %

Allowance for commuting work

Allowance for seniority

Allowance for seniority: → UGX 150000.0 per month
Allowance for seniority after: →  years of service

Meal vouchers

Meal allowances provided: → Yes
→  per meal
Free legal assistance: → No
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